Welcome to the Seagulls Swimming Club dictionary – to help you understand some of those strange terms and odd sayings. If you think we have got a definition wrong or we are missing a definition, let us know and we’ll add it!
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. Typically longer distance energy system (see Energy).
Age for Competitors
Generally age‐determined events rely on the age a swimmer will be on 31st December of the year of the competition.
Swimmer/competition for U16.
Age Group Squads
The competitive 10‐16 year old squads.
Because who doesn’t love hearing this go off at 5 in the morning?
Sprint energy systems (see Energy).
This is a national league in which most of the major swimming clubs throughout England and Wales are included. There are 3 rounds, the first two of which are swum in October and November, with the final in December.
The Amateur Swimming Association is the competitive governing body of swimming in England. Their website is as follows: http://www.britishswimming.org
The ASA have ‘learn to swim’ and development schemes for children to progress through swimming skills and distances. Each time a child achieves a set of skills, they gain a badge.
An annual publication containing all of the rules on strokes including their respective starts, turns & finishes.
British Age Group CATegories.
The ASA’s British Age Group (BAG) points system. This is based on a statistical analysis of lower age group times. It provides factors to correct for the differences in difficulty of the events within a given year of birth but not between years.
Five scores are awarded. One each for the best BAG point in each of:
(a) 50m any stroke (sprints);
(b) 200m Back, Breast, Fly (form);
(c) Individual Medley;
(d) Freestyle distance (200m+); and
(e) (If applicable) 100m any stroke.
The sum of these scores determines the overall points & a point must be scored in each applicable category.
At Open events & County Championships, the place where entry cards must be handed in before the start of the warm‐up.
Some of the best memories are bus rides with your team to and from meets.
Entry cards are used to register a swimmers intention to race and attendance on race day. For Open and County Championships a card is sent to each competitor for each event entered. This shows the entry time, the start time of the gala & competitor number. These cards must be checked when they are received, taken to the gala & handed in before the start of the warm‐up.
Are our annual competition amongst all of our own swimmers. During club champs our swimmers compete against each other for medals, points and times. Medals are awarded on the night, points are accumulated and used to attain prizes awarded during our annual presentation night. The Club Champs are a formal event where we have judges, starters, timekeepers & usually a big crowd of parents.
A large, closed, four-wheeled carriage, having doors in the sides, and generally a front and back seat inside, each for two persons, and an elevated outside seat in front for the driver?
We think not!!
Coaching is training or development in which a person called a “coach” supports a learner in achieving a specific personal or professional goal.
A manager is a title, it does not guarantee success. Coaching is an action, and actions will result in success! Listen to your coach!
Is the protocol followed after racing or training to reduce the build‐up of lactic acid in the body.
When the fibres in a muscle stay contracted due to a high amount of lactic acid being present in the muscle. Cramp can be addressed by gently stretching the particular muscle.
A gala designated by the ASA for national & district qualifying times.
The level of competition between County & National.
Dorset County Age Groups
The County level competition for individual entries held in February to March each year. This competition is for swimmers aged 10 or over and who are registered with a Dorset ASA swimming club. Swimmers must have achieved specific qualifying times, set by the ASA, to enter.
Disqualified. This can happen for many reasons ‐ false start, not touching the wall properly, incorrect technique & others. Try and avoid doing this, listen to your coach and learn!
The cardio‐vascular system provides energy. The body has three complementary energy systems. The first two are anaerobic, which instantly provide energy & do not use oxygen, but will only produce energy for 45‐55 seconds. The third system is aerobic & needs a constant supply of oxygen ‐ it is a slower & more economical system of energy production. The anaerobic systems are the major provider for 25m & 50m sprints whilst the 200m events, & longer, are mainly served by the aerobic system.
The time on the entry form, the best time achieved within a given period of the closing date for entries.
Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA)
FINA or Fédération Internationale de Natation (International Swimming Federation) is the International Federation recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for administering international competition in Aquatics.
The clubs annual Xmas Fun Gala takes place in December. It is open to swimmers from all age groups including Masters. The Fun Gala involves lots of dressing up, and silly games, all with a swimming theme. Great fun and the kids (& parents) love it.
Heat Declared Winner (HDW)
Only heats are swum, not heats & finals. Several events are swum together, usually different ages of the same stroke & distance. Swimmers are graded by their entry time & not their age. The winner is the swimmer in the relevant category (usually age) with the fastest time, not necessarily the winner of a particular heat ‐ a nightmare for spectators wanting to know the result because you have to identify all the swimmers in a particular age category & note all their times before you know how well your swimmer has done (barring disqualifications).
Swimmers in training will be asked to swim and record their heart rate. The following are some of the terms the swimmers will experience:
BBM: Beats Below Max.
BPM: Beats Per Minute.
MHR: Maximum Heart Rate.
THR: Target Heart Rate.
A race in which all 4 strokes are combined in the order ‐ Fly, Back, Breast, Freestyle.
This is the first level of British qualification for which the minimum age is 15. It encompasses the role and duties of a ‘Timekeeper’, ‘Chief Timekeeper’ and ‘Inspector of Turns’.
This is the second level of qualification. It encompasses the role and duties in relation to all aspects of judging and the theoretical role and duties of Starter. This is based around a workshop session followed by practical sessions with an experienced official and a final practical session.
The flat float usually used for ‘leg only’ drills.
A by‐product of the breakdown of anaerobic energy that causes muscles to ache, seize or even cramp.
Conditioning used to assist in improving a swimmers: strength, endurance, posture & flexibility. However, most importantly the swimmer will also develop their core muscles, enabling them to employ and relax necessary muscles at the right time & thereby enhancing speed & power in the water.
Level 1, 2 or 3 Open Meet
All Open Meets hosted by clubs have to be licensed with the ASA or FINA in order for swimmers times to count towards rankings, or for national or District qualification. This in effect designates the meet; a level 3 meet will have easiest entry times, whilst a level 1 meet, will have the hardest entry times. A level 3 meet is for swimmers at County level. A level 2 meet would be for swimmers at District level and a level 1 meet would be for swimmers at the National level.
Long Course (LC)
Races in a 50‐metre pool.
Swimmers aged 25 or over.
A relay where each swimmer swims a different stroke in the order ‐ Back, Breast, Fly, Freestyle. The stroke order differs from that of the Individual Medley so as to avoid a takeover to backstroke.
Gentle exercises where a swimmer mobilises all of the joints in the body, before starting a warm‐up or race.
National Age Group Championships
National championships for girls (11‐14 years) or boys (11‐15 years) that have gained qualifying times.
National Youth Championship
National championships for girls (14‐17 years) or boys (15‐18 years) that have gained qualifying times.
The Club Notice Board located either in the main corridor or on poolside at the Two Riversmeet Leisure Centre.
A friendly gala between local clubs. Typically, time limits are introduced & if swimmers times are faster than the time limit they are given a “speeding ticket” and their team receives no points for that event. This is to ensure swimmers of all abilities are given the opportunity to win.
National Performance Training Squad.
National Qualifying Time, must be obtained in an ASA designated event.
One start rule
If a swimmer starts before the gun/whistle/beeper, he or she is disqualified. This is the current ASA standard.
A race in which swimmers of any age may compete.
A gala open to swimmers from any club, but usually of a specific age.
Over The Top Start
Swimmers from the last race remain in the water until the next race has started.
Personal Best, the best time ever swum by that person over that distance for that stroke.
The keyhole shaped float that keeps your legs afloat in ‘an arms’ only drill.
Lists of the top 50 swimmers in each age/gender from 10 years (see age) upwards.
When the red hand of the poolside timing clock is pointing to the 12 o’clock position. “Red 15” is when it is pointing 3 o’clock & so on.
Rest period at the end of a set.
Swimmer aged 17 years & over (25+ year olds are also Masters).
A training period.
A series of training routines.
Short Course (SC)
Races in a 25‐metre pool.
The lane order for finals is decided from times in the heats or semi‐finals. The fastest qualifier will swim in lane 4, second fastest in lane 5, third in lane 3, fourth in lane 6, fifth in lane 2, sixth in lane 7, seventh in lane 1 & eighth in lane 8. Theoretically, this creates spearhead format in the race.
ASA awards and badges awarded to swimmers who have gained a bronze, silver or gold speed award over 25m for a particular stroke. The times are set by the ASA governing body.
The time at each 25/50m turn. Swimmers will monitor these to check how they paced a race.
Also known as a “cannon”. A freestyle relay which is usually the final event of a competition; normally consisting of 10 swimmers in each team, arranged boy/girl/boy… in each age group, oldest last. Expect lots of noise and lots of fun!
Reducing the cross sectional area of the body to the minimum to make faster progress through
the water as a result of less drag.
Stroke drills are components of a swimming stroke that has been broken down in order to gain that aspect of skill, such as how the hand enters the water in freestyle could be achieved via a ‘pull buoy’ drill. The swimmers personal Log Books contain breakdowns of skills and drills.
A gentle set to relax the muscles after training / competition to reduce lactate build up.
Prior to any big competition, a swimmer will ‘taper’. All this really means is that they ‘rest’ by cutting back the amount of training they do & decreasing the intensity.
A target time for an event/stroke that a swimmer has been set by their coach.
Competitions where there may not be medals or awards for finishing in the first 3. Instead the events are aimed at achieving times or PB’s (with the swimmers essentially competing against themselves) that can also be used to gain entry to Open Meets & County events. The Time Trials are a formal event where we have judges, starters, timekeepers & usually a big crowd of parents.
A gentle set at the beginning of a session or gala to acclimatise the muscles for what is to come.
Western County Age Groups
These are our areas District Championships held in May to July each year. To compete, swimmers must have achieved qualifying times, which are harder than those in the county championships.
The person designated by our team as responsible for marshalling our team to ensure that swimmers are at the right point at the right time during competitions.
Age‐determined events are categorised by the age a swimmer either on 31 December of the year of the competition, or on the date of the competition (look at the promoters material to see which).